INDT 501-02 Week 6 Reflection Blog: To Flip or not to Flip?

February 24, 2013

The more I read about flipping a classroom the more excited I am to apply it in the classroom. I will be teaching special education which means I will be working with a variety of students with different needs and covering different subjects. I think that if I was able to work with a variety of teachers we could come up with plans to cover the subjects. It would be great to have the video or pod cast available to the students. Some students learn at a slower pace and would benefit greatly at being able to listen to a lesson over and over. The potential is there for students to excel greatly. I think that the extra time in class to help with students with comprehension and applying the practice would be beneficial. These students would be able to complete task and have more confidence in their completion of the task because they could either work as a group or have the teacher available to assist when any problems arise.

 

Flipping the classroom gives greater potential to a less restrictive environment for some special education students. With having the videos available to them students would be able to review a lesson to help with test taking and to review the lesson. Some of the obstacles with flipping the classroom would be making sure that students have access to the video or pod cast. Is there Internet availability? Are other teachers willing to help with this project? I think there are simple solutions to availability of the technology. The students could watch a video during lunch or before and after school. I feel that most of the teachers would be willing to help with creating videos, they could use it in their classroom. I think as a teacher sees their students excel they will be more and more confident with the process of flipping the classroom. I do think that you would really have to make sure that you are reviewing the content and asking questions everyday to make sure that videos are being watched and students are getting something from them.

 

Some subjects I believe would be more difficult to flip, like English or a foreign language. I do however see the potential in using videos to help students with enunciation, pronunciation and word usage. I think that grammar rules could easily be incorporated into a video, then students would be able to review as necessary. I do not think that some of the arts work very well with flipping the classroom, and some of the other elective classes. There is great potential in flipping a classroom, I hope that in the future it is utilized more and more. I think that some many students fall through the cracks and that flipping is another way to reach those students so we can keep them in the classroom and hopefully help students who are trouble learning in a traditional classroom setting. Why not use every tool at your disposal?

Categories: Technology in Education.

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EDCI 500 Blog Reflection 3: Immersion

February 24, 2013

While watching the video Skwerl, I found it to be just another evening in the life of these people. You could occasionally pick up on a few words here and there, but for the most part you were at a lose to understand what was going on in the video. Except when they were arguing, I think universally everyone understands when they are in trouble. It is more about facially expression at that point, like American Sign Language. In sign language it is essential to maintain eye contact and facial expression is the key to understanding the conversation, the signs and motions are secondary. I think this video brings attention to how children who come from a family that speaks a foreign language, or use sign language have great difficulty when they enter the classroom and have to struggle all day long to understand what the teacher is saying and what their classmates are saying. They also have to be able to read what is written on the board, we only had to watch a four minute video, I would go nuts if I had to go through that all day long five days a week. I also feel that this would be a difficult experience for children who have auditory processing disabilities, all of the chatter and background noise would make for a difficult environment. This problem if left unaddressed only leads to frustration and children tend to just give up.

The video would have been very difficult to understand and relate to if it was an audio file only. You would lose the facial expressions, props, background music, and you would not have been able to establish a setting, which all lend to help you understand the context of the video. All of this visual and audio information together should help us, as teacher’s to better understand the difficulties the students are facing. The classroom is an experience that needs to provide visual, audio, and tactile clues for all of the children to draw from. By providing them this additional information they are gain more information to make connections between the lesson and how to apply it. The sooner that children who are monolingual begin the learning process of adding an additional language to better they are at processing information and have to use only one hemisphere of the brain to make the connections (Woolfolk, 175).

 

Another key element to a multi-culture and multi-lingual classroom is to incorporate “culturally relevant teaching by utilizing the backgrounds, knowledge, and experiences of the students to inform the teacher’s lessons and methodology” (Coffey, 1). By making your classroom culturally relevant for all students you are making them feel welcome and comfortable in the classroom. By creating a comfortable environment you help them identify themselves as learners and as belonging in the environment. Woolfolk states, “for a child, genuine acceptance is a necessary condition for developing self-esteem”(238). As a teacher we have nothing to lose and everything to gain by creating a multi-cultural environment for children.

Coffey, H. (2008). Culturally relevant teaching. Culturally Relevant Teaching. Retrieved February 23, 2013, from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4474

Hoy, A. W. (2013). Educational psychology (12th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Why aren’t Spanish speaking kids getting an education? (2009, June 02). YouTube. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwgiwnzbDa4

Categories: Educational Psychology.

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Week 5: INDT 501-01 Creating a Video

February 17, 2013

I was very apprehensive about this assignment when I heard someone tell me it took that person three days to make his or her video. I had not even looked at it until Thursday night in class due to Internet issues at home. Thankful they were an easy fix and here I am! When I saw the videos that had been created in class I was a bit worried about the assignment and that I had waited to long. Once I decided on a SOL for US History 11th grade, I opened up animoto and found the easiest and most user-friendly site ever. I absolutely love it and will use it as much as possible in the classroom.

 

I will be a Special Education teacher once I am finally done with my degree, and I know that children learn differently from each other. Some children learn visually, some are auditory learners, and some are tactile learners this shows us that most children learn in an environment that offers a mixed learning format or a variety of techniques are used to hold their attention and to trigger the learning process. I do think that animoto is a great tool to enticing children’s natural curiosity and sparking an interest into a topic that might otherwise fall flat if the teacher stands in front of the class and gives a boring lecture about the Land and Lease Act and the Fourth Neutrality Act. I’m bored just thinking about it, but if you create a video that is exciting and maybe invite a local historian to Skype with the class and answer questions along with the lecture. You have created a lesson that is broken down and offers a variety of different things to hold their interest. I know some students that unless they are visually engaged prior to the lesson, they fail to comprehend the lesson and fall behind. This is such an easy fix, we can create a quick video to spark the interest of all the students and the students that need that visual interaction are being given what they need. This creates a better learning environment for all students.

 

While exploring the new environments of the digital world this week we focused on Google Reader and Twitter. Of the two I must say that Google Reader was the my favorite, I liked how we could link to our classmates and other interest areas and follow them in that one place instead of logging onto five different web sites and having to find them. It is a very useful tool and I think it would be useful in the classroom for the teacher as well as the students, it would save a lot of time for grading and also reading and sharing blogs. Twitter was my least favorite, I really just do not care that much for social web sites. I do think it is something that I need to become more comfortable with and investigate further and see where I can use this tool in the classroom. Most kids love tweeting and facebook, my only concern is parent reaction and explaining that it would be a classroom tool to enhance learning. I would be easier for a child who does not like writing to be a put a tweet out and can some confidence in themselves and the would be able to approach a larger writing assignment with a different attitude.

Categories: Technology in Education.

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INDT 501-01 information Literacy and Creativity

February 10, 2013

What a bunch of great, fun activities this week! I enjoyed playing with almost all of the tasks that we were assigned this week, I do however need to become more fluent with them. I really did not encounter any major problems with the varied exercises. The most difficult task was waiting for account approval, when I sit down to complete an assignment I really like to be able to work through them. Patience is something that I will be working on the rest of my life. One major thing that I have learned since starting this course is that I do not know anything about technology, but I will. I really thought that I was pretty up to date on a lot of things, that just is not so! I really enjoyed working on the Personal Learning Network for Educators, I know that for me it takes me several days to get used to something and to figure out exactly how it works. I have set a goal for myself to go onto this site everyday next week for at least 30 minutes and familiarize myself with the site better. This is a must for me, and I know that.

 

I really like the Google search engine and think that this is a real asset to the classroom, it really eliminates a lot of sites that I think that kids would get lost on and would delay their work. It offers the teachers a lot more control of what the kids are getting into and eliminates the large majority of poor or misinformed sites. I do think that kids need to figure out how to do better research and as they get better at they can venture off more on their own. I will be teaching Special Education classes so I really think this will be highly beneficial to my students. It offers more structure and control to the vast amounts of information out there.

 

I was not really happy with the searches I did on Technorati, maybe I just missed the point all together but the things that I searched really weren’t on there, except for the Washington Redskins which I found 90 results for, all of my other searches had zero or two results. I think that this needs to be explored further so that I can determine if this is beneficial to me in the future. As I continue in this class I really see the great benefits to myself and the kids that I will be teaching, I am glad that this class is in the curriculum and think that it gives me a broader base of information and tools to utilize in the classroom.

Categories: Technology in Education.

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EDCI 100-02: What does research say about identity?

February 10, 2013

As we develop in life we all go through certain levels of development, some of us sooner than others, but we go through them all at our own pace. As we all come to these stages of development in life we wrestle with our identity, who are we? What do we want to do with ourselves? How are we going to move forward and what decisions are we going to make and what are we going to base our decisions on? We have intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in life that drive us and allow us to make informed decisions. Some of our extrinsic motivators would include our parents, teachers, and life events. So what do we do with all of this motivation? How do they influence us? Our textbook defines this as “moral reasoning, the thinking process involved in judgments about question of right and wrong” (Woolfolk, 99). As we develop our moral compass we gain a deeper understanding of rules and the role we play in following rules and how they apply to us. “Piaget called this a state of realism” (Woolfolk, 100).

 

As kids come to a realization of who they think they are or want to be they come to an understanding that “the idea that each of us exist in, and through, our relations with other persons, is at the very heart of our understanding of what being a person means” (Splitter, 491). The classroom can help children by “transforming the classroom into collaborative thinking environments is an invitation to young people to take an active role in their own vales” (Splitter, 497). This falls into the ideas of Bronfenbrenner’s bio ecological model where kids receive influence and nurturing from their environment that includes the school and family (Woolfolk, 75-77). By helping to develop children’s morals and identities they are receiving good citizens who work to please their parents, teachers, and community.

 

According to our textbook development of Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development include two stages at all three levels. It shows that as children develop both emotionally and cognitively they move up the levels and stages respectively, and their abstract thinking becomes more important (Woolfolk, 100-101). This is an interesting take on moral development, but is thought to be flawed. There are several theories out there on moral development, and many have several levels of validity but as generations of children change and society changes, children see that they can rebel and get away with more such as “coming to class late, sleeping, rudeness, texting or ringing cell phones, inappropriate talking, profanity, apathy, bullying, fighting, and other forms of anti-social behaviors – is a major problem in American education institutions; hence, the growing efforts to promote civic and character education” (Moore, 142).

 

I must say that I do not feel that educating children of morals solely falls on the school systems or society, I believe that it starts at home. Parents must be vigilant about morals, right and wrong, setting good examples, demonstrating how to follow rules and be good citizens. Children like to emulate the behavior of those around them and by being good leaders and setting good examples parents, teachers, and neighbors demonstrate on a daily basis citizenship with good moral judgment and lead to a more morally based identity in children.

Hoy, A. W. (2013). Educational psychology (12th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Moore, J. (2012, May 21). A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Increasing Civility in Schools and Society by Modeling Civic Virtues. Www.tandfonline.com. doi: 10.1080/00377996.2011.596860

Splitter, L. (2010). Identity, Citizenship and Moral Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory43(5), 484-500. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.2009.00626.x

 

Categories: Educational Psychology.

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INDT 501-01 Copyright Issues in Education

February 3, 2013

egyptian tomb

I am sure that as the Pharaoh’s were overseeing the amazing and backbreaking construction of their tombs and chambers they were not concerned with how it would be shared or how the images of their legacy and likeness would be used. We now live in a world that is digital and ever changing, and we have to be careful of what we put out on the Internet and how we use what others release. With tools such as Flickr, facebook, Tweeter, and MySpace information is everywhere and getting more difficult to control and protect the interest of all parties. As a person who loves photography and has taken thousands of images and created books as an Studio Art major this is a great concern for me.

 

The importance of teaching the digital natives of our culture the proper and legal uses of their resources is essential as they progress through the education system. Without proper guidance and instruction from teachers it is extremely doubtful that most or all students will seek out on their own the correct methods of using resources and the legal ramifications for infringing upon the copyright of a business or private individual. Students need to understand that “people can copy material under some circumstances if they cite the reference or get author or copyright holder permission” (Solomon,G., & Schrum,L., 107).

 

 

As teachers to the digital natives it is our responsibility to make sure that we help them understand that, “information literacy is a skill that is expected of students once they leave school” (Coffman,T., 35). It is also our duty to make sure that students are also able to determine, “how information is organized, how to find quality information, evaluate different types of information, and then create new information for others to access and learn” (Coffman,T., 35).

 

I think that we do students a disservice if we fail to communication the importance of copyrighting and we can use music downloading as an example. The large amount of legal fallout that has taken place since the laws have changed is an excellent opportunity for teachers to explain the importance of following the rules. I think this is something that the students can relate to and it would help explain the importance of the copyrighting laws. It really only takes a few more minutes to do something right. As for the image that I used of the Egyptian tomb I found the image on a Google search, after I searched Egyptian temples I used the advanced search feature and narrowed down the images by selecting free to use or share under usage rights, since I am not using this image for commercial gain I felt that it was appropriate to use this image in this blog posting.

 

Coffman, T. (2013). Using inquiry in the classroom: Developing creative thinkers and information literate students (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

E. (n.d.). Untitled [Photograph found in Ancient Egyptian Temples, Egypt]. In Flickr. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/esku75/513513540/ (Originally photographed 2007, March 27)

Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2010). Web 2.0 how-to for educators (1st ed.). Eugene, Or.: International Society for Technology in Education.

Categories: Technology in Education.

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INDT 501-01 21st Century Skills vs. Core Knowledge

January 27, 2013

Does being a digital-immigrant mean that I am incapable of learning how to use technology efficiently? Certainly not, I use several web sites proficiently and frequently, however it does not mean that I am adept in all technology. I think that when I am introduced to a new web site that there is definitely a learning curve that needs to be applied. Take blogging for example, I hope that each week blogging will be easier and better. I am sure the jury is still out on that. I wish that when I was going to school that all of these wonder advances had been available to me. I think I would have benefitted greatly from them. How much better would have typing have been, book reports would have taken half the time. Now we can just go onto databases and pull up as many articles or journals that we want. I do accept that not everyone appreciates technology as much as others do. Sometimes I think that we are on information overload, but I enjoy it nonetheless. What would I do without my ereader or cellphone?

 

Using technology in education is the present and future of education. While reading the USA Today article about the argument between Core Knowledge or Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) I could not grasp the reasoning of Core Knowledge in that technology is “an ineffectual use of school time” (Toppo). It is not financially possible for school districts to take children on enough field trips to expose them to the world around them, a book does not paint a picture the way that an artist can, but through the internet people are able to see the world and the beautiful things that come from the magic of creation and investigation. Granted it is not the same as seeing it in person, but it is all that some people can afford.

 

Not every student learns the same way and the approach of Core Knowledge’ in my opinion does not address all learners. I think that students need a more a varied approach. I know that since going back to school I have seen professors in some of my classes use a variety of techniques and found that for me, when they used a variety of mediums I was able to stay focused longer and switching between lecture, media, and power points. The variety I feel holds students attention longer and offers a variety for students who learn differently. I think that mixing teaching techniques is something that I could incorporate into the classroom once I get a teaching position.

 

I really enjoyed the P21 website, I again have to come back to the argument that E.D. Hirsch Jr. made “most profoundly hurt disadvantaged children: At home, he says, they don’t get as much background as middle-class students in history, science, literature and the like” (Toppo), his argument is flawed. Going through the web site of P21, they read and illustrate books to children, which most disadvantaged students do not get at home. How is this taking away from their education? It’s not, they lean how to use a computer and get someone to read to them. Most of these kids would greatly benefit from this type of information.

Toppo, G. (2009, March 5). What to learn: ‘core knowledge’ or ’21st-century skills’?Usatoday.com. Retrieved January 23, 2013, from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/education/2009-03-04-core-knowledge_N.htm

Categories: Technology in Education.

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EDCI 500-02 Reflecting on No Child Left Behind

January 27, 2013

 

I began thinking about how to approach the topic of No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), I immediately started on my thoughts of the matter. I am not especially happy with NCLB, I really do not feel that it is a true test of a teacher’s ability or of a child’s ability to learn. I know that the ultimate goal of NCLB was, “schools are expected to increase their performance for all “students on an annual basis.  The goal is to make sure that eventually 100 percent of their students score at least at the proficient level as measured by these annual tests” (Tavakolian, E., & Howell, N., 71). I think that you have to take into consideration all of the factors involved in education and the child’s life to understand the full measure of education and learning. I decided to ask my children about their feelings on the Standards of Learning tests (SOL) that they take every year, to help me understand the test and motivation of SOL test taking from their point of view.

 

I asked my son, who I will refer to from this point on as Male child, and my daughter who I will refer to as Female child several questions about the SOL’s and why they felt motivated to do well on the test. So that you have a better understanding of the children I will tell you that they are both exceptional learners who are in the gifted program at their school, they are both on Honor Roll every grading period and are both involved in community programs outside of school and involved in clubs after school. I asked them both the same questions and got somewhat different take from both of them.

 

When asked about how Male child felt the teacher’s handled teaching information regarding SOL’s he stated that they were “just pushing kids who don’t want to learn through” he eluded to the idea that they were not interested in the test and that it had become just another chore for them to complete. I then asked Male child how he felt other children approached studying and taking the SOL, he said that “some of the kids memorize things for the test, and then they don’t need it”. I asked Male child if he felt the SOL was a true judge of how he learned, what he had learned or why he feels motivated to learn, “no, it can’t possibly be! I learn for me, because I want to have a great job when I finish school and I know that I can’t have that if I don’t try hard”. When asked if he felt the test was effective in judging how well a teacher taught the information to the class his answer was, “no, not all of the kids care, they don’t care if how well they do”.

 

My interview with Female child was somewhat different, when asked about how she felt the teacher’s handled teaching information regarding SOL’s she stated “well it depends on the teacher, some of the teacher’s really care about the information and others well they don’t even like the kids”. So I asked her how she felt other children approached studying and taking the SOL, she said that “well that really depends on the kid, someone who gets all A’s is really going to try hard, the average kid will try a little, but doesn’t really care, and then the bad kids don’t care at all, they know that they will just get pushed through so the teachers can get rid of them”. I asked Female child if she felt the SOL was a true judge of how she learned, what she had learned or why she feels motivated to learn, “ no, the test is mildly challenging and I learn because I want to too! I don’t need a test to see if I learned the information, I want to learn so I try harder”. When

asked if she felt the test was effective in judging how well a teacher taught the information to the class her answer was, “ no, taking a test is a measure of how well I do with test taking, if you want to see how well a teacher is teaching then maybe they should put video cameras in the classroom and watch them”.

 

I was mildly surprised with the kids answers, I am happy that they realize that they are in-charge of their own success and that they have to motivate themselves, but it really disappoints me to know that a 14 year old and a 12 year old understand education better than Congress or the President of the United States.  I do realize that Congress and the President only wanted, “to close achievement gaps between all students by providing each child with fair and equal opportunities to receive quality elementary and secondary educations” (Tavakolian, E. & Howell, N., 72). When doing my research for the blog, there was not really anything that surprised me. Researchers have found that better teachers have very strong effects, a teacher who regularly have high test score gains in a classroom, and a poor teacher has low test score gains (Hanushek E., Rivkin, S., 134). Each individual state sets a standard for what a highly qualifying teacher is, for most states they have determined that a quality teachers require no additional education or testing achievements (Hanushek E., Rivkin, S., 135). Before NCLB was implemented new teachers were mostly required to have a bachelor’s degree, pass certification testing, and demonstrate knowledge of the subject matter in which they are instructing (Hanushek E., Rivkin, S., 135). Does this make teachers better educators? No, the standard really wasn’t raised, I feel that it truly comes back to the educator and what motivates them to teach, whether it is intrinsic or extrinsic motivation.

 

The entire problem with education does not solely lie with the educator, some of it should fall on the administration. Does the administration do anything to teachers who fail to perform? How is the information handled, are they punished, do they continue in their position regardless of performance? Do teacher’s unions protect their position? Our textbook tells us that a poor teacher tends to have a poor relationship with their students with “evidence mounting for a strong association between the quality of teacher-child relationships and school performance” (Woolfolk, 7). It also shows that “students who had the least effective teachers three years in a row averaged 29th percentile in math achievement in one district and 44th percentile in the other” (Woolfolk, 7).  So what is administration doing about poor teachers? The data appears to be very limited, we know how to identify, “the extent to which principals can distinguish less-effective and more-effective teachers and are willing to act on that knowledge constitutes a crucial determinant of the benefits of accountability” (Hanushek E., Rivkin, S., 146). Hanushek and Rivkin found that it is relatively unclear what school administration is doing with this information (Hanushek E., Rivkin, S., 146). So where does this leave us, if we do not use the information to move poor teachers out of education, then the NCLB act is ineffective.

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0WUqNO0qp4

All in all I think that the intent was pure when coming up with NCLB, I do however think that it is a failure. I think children who are either unmotivated at home or at school will never perform to a set standard if they decide that there is no reason for them to put for the effort. Teachers who are not interest in the overall well being of the classroom, will never be able to excite or motivate a classroom of hungry minds, and finally an administration that has no intention or lack of ability to weed out poor teachers and poor teaching methods is never going to meet or accomplish the goals set before them. However, I don’t think that a federally mandated education act is going to solve all of the problems, especially when it fails to meet the financial demands that it places upon school system.

 

 

 

Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2010). The Quality and Distribution of Teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act. Journal of Economic Perspectives24(3), 133-150. doi: 10.1257/jep.24.3.133

 

 

Hoy, A. W. (2013). Educational psychology (12th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

 

No Child Left Behind: A Decade of Failure [Video]. (2012). United States of America: The Cato Institure. Retrieved January 25, 2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0WUqNO0qo4

 

 

Tavakolian, H., & Howell, N. (2012). The Impact of No Child Left Behind Act.Franklin Business & Law Journal2012(1), 70-77. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umw.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?nobk=y&vid=4&sid=745fa67e-b107-4f5d-80d9-375aaed13936@sessionmgr112&hid=126

 

 

Categories: Educational Psychology.

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January 20, 2013

Well for the first time in my life I have a blog! All of this technology in one weekend is quite the experience. I only wish that I could have had more experience with technology while I was in High School. It was practically non-existent in High School, we thought we were something else with the electric typewriters and using Word Perfect 7. When I went back to college four years ago I was shocked with everything that students were using for assignments, wow if we could have had easybib, what a life saver. I think that I have adjusted fairly well over the last four years, I would have loved to have gone through a school system that was as advanced as the ones shown in these videos, I think I would have benefited greatly from an experience like that.

I watched the videos for High School students, because I want to teach Special Education General Curriculum and work with High School students. There weren’t any videos specifically for Special Education, but I would be working with them in all areas of education and would need to be familiar with all subjects. I was shocked at all of the new techniques and approaches that are available to teachers today. I think that it is great that teachers are able to tap into these resources and expand upon their lesson plans. I think that it creates a change of pace for students and offers a variety so they are not stuck in their seats listening to a lecture and not able to apply the information they are receiving to a real world application. It helps hold their attention, especially for students have attention deficit disorders, and keeps them more actively engaged in the lesson.

I can see the benefit for school systems in utilizing new technology. It would cut down on expenses in the long run and create more opportunity for the community as a whole. The community would benefit from a better trained work force and have a greater potential of bringing in businesses that are looking to relocate. The school that my kids are attending utilizes some technology by using white boards, video projection systems, SCORE, PASS, Drop box, and Destiny. Watching these videos about learning Matrices made me really excited for the future of education and the added benefits that technology is providing, while there are new problems with language skills that children today are developing while immersing themselves in cell phones and mobile devices. I think only great things are to come for education and I think that by utilizing technology with will continue to advance as a nation and hopefully begin to catch our children up with some of the more advanced nations.

 

Information on the Technology Integration Matrix is located on a website produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Quality, College of Education, University of South Florida      (http://fcit.usf.edu/matrix/faq.php).

Categories: Uncategorized.

Hello world!

January 20, 2013

Welcome to UMW Blogs. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start blogging! If you need some help getting started with UMW Blogs please refer to the support documentation here.

Categories: Uncategorized.

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